Методические указания по выполнению контрольных работ для студентов заочной формы обучения Санкт-Петербург






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НазваниеМетодические указания по выполнению контрольных работ для студентов заочной формы обучения Санкт-Петербург
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ТипМетодические указания
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Text 1. MOST POPULAR TYPES OF BUSINESS ENTITIES IN THE USA


Sole Proprietor

Most businesses in the US are sole proprietorships - that is, they are owned and operated by a single person. In a sole proprietorship, the owner is entirely responsible for the business's success or failure. He or she collects any profits, but if the venture loses money and the business cannot cover the loss, the owner is responsible for paying the bills - even if doing so depletes his or her personal assets.

Sole proprietorships have certain advantages over other forms of business organization. They suit the temperament of people who like to exercise initiative and be their own bosses. They are flexible, since owners can make decisions quickly without having to consult others. By law, individual proprietors pay fewer taxes than corporations. And customers often are attracted to sole proprietorships, believing an individual who is accountable will do a good job.

This form of business organization has some disadvantages, however. A sole proprietorship legally ends when an owner dies or becomes incapacitated, although someone may inherit the assets and continue to operate the business. Also, since sole proprietorships generally are dependent on the amount of money their owners can save or borrow, they usually lack the resources to develop into large-scale enterprises.

^ Business Partnership

One way to start or expand a venture is to create a partnership with two or more co-owners. Partnerships enable entrepreneurs to pool their talents; one partner may be qualified in production, while another may excel at marketing, for instance. Partnerships are exempt from most reporting requirements the government imposes on corporations, and they are taxed favorably compared with corporations. Partners pay taxes on their personal share of earnings, but their businesses are not taxed.

States regulate the rights and duties of partnerships. Co-owners generally sign legal agreements specifying each partner's duties. Partnership agreements also may provide for "silent partners," who invest money in a business but do not take part in its management. A major disadvantage of partnerships is that each member is liable for all of a partnership's debts, and the action of any partner legally binds all the others. If one partner squanders money from the business, for instance, the others must share in paying the debt. Another major disadvantage can arise if partners have serious and constant disagreements.

Corporation

A corporation is an entity that is separate from its owners, so that regardless of what happens to shareholders, the corporation continues until it is legally dissolved. The owner(s) of a corporation are known as shareholders. The shareholders elect directors to set the policies of the corporation and represent their interests. The directors appoint the officers of the corporation to manage day to day operations. Corporations are legally required to follow more formalities than any of the other entities, including annual meetings of the shareholders and directors, as well as board approval of most significant acts by the corporation.

There are two main types of for-profit corporations, known as a C corporation and an S corporation. While most corporations are set up as C corporations, some elect to function instead as an S corporation in order to avoid double taxation.

In addition to these two types of for-profit corporations there are also nonprofit corporations, which are often used by charities. Finally, in limited circumstances, a corporation may be set up as a professional corporation, where the business is owned and operated by certain licensed professionals.

LLC

A limited liability company (LLC) is a form of enterprise that blends elements of partnership and corporate structures. It is a legal form of company that provides limited liability to its owners.

It is often more flexible than a corporation and it is well-suited for companies with a single owner.
Задание 1.1. Ответьте письменно на вопросы к тексту:

1. What are the main types of businesses in the USA?

2. What are the advantages of sole proprietorships? What disadvantages do they have?

3. Partnership involves collaboration between two or more parties. When do problems sometimes arise?

4. How is C corporation different from S corporation?

5. Who is a corporation run by?

6. A limited liability company is new type of business in the USA, but it is very popular.
Задание 2. Прочитайте и переведите устно текст на русский язык. Выпишите выделенные слова из текста, запишите их транскрипцию и перевод.
Text 2. MICROSOFT

Microsoft, the software giant from Redmond, Washington, was born in 1975 as Micro-Soft, a partnership between two high school friends, Bill Gates and Paul Allen, to write software for what they regarded as the first practical computer for the consumer market, the MITS Altair 8800.

When that market exploded with the introduction of the I.B.M. personal computer in 1981, the main beneficiary turned out to be the now unhyphenated Microsoft, which had developed the software for the PC's operating system — and had held onto the rights to the program.

The most popular Microsoft products are the Windows operating system and the Microsoft Office suite of applications. Microsoft also produces popular hardware products, such as the Microsoft mouse and the XBox video games product line. With over 70,000 employees worldwide and annual sales of over $44 billion, Microsoft is a leader in the global tech industry.

Microsoft is still a powerhouse supplier of the specialized software that meets the complex needs of large corporations, but it does not receive the adoring attention that its chief rival Apple draws with products like the iPad.

In the summer of 2010, Microsoft remained more profitable than Apple, but Apple's market valuation has allowed it to surpass its rival to become the world's most valuable technology company.

Microsoft has often been criticized for their drive to dominate world markets. "Embrace, extend, extinguish" is a phrase often used to describe Microsoft's market strategy. The company has been sued several times for copyright infringement, and was sued by the US Justice Department for anti-trust violations.

Conversely, Microsoft is considered by many to be an ideal place to work. The company has won awards for innovation, for their commitment to diversity, and for their flexible work arrangements. Their compensation is competitive, and employees with seniority are often very wealthy as a result of Microsoft stock options. Benefits are outstanding, and the company has a notoriously casual dress code.
Задание 3. Поставьте прилагательные в скобках в сравнительную или превосходную степени сравнения .

1. The life of this battery is (long) than most of its rivals at almost half the price.

2. Our mineral water is (pure) in the market.

3. He is (good) student in our group.

4. I would recommend this jacket. It’s (stylish) than the other one and it really suits you.

5. This is (low) price I can offer.

6. You’ll really like these chips. They are (tasty) than any others on the market.

7. I can’t recommend this DVD player. Its results were (bad) than the others.

8. That is (silly) suggestion I’ve ever heard.
Задание 4. Переведите письменно предложения на русский язык. Укажите видовременную форму сказуемого в страдательном залоге.

1. Your enquiry is being dealt with.

2. Make sure that your mobile phone is switched off during important

meetings.

3. All tenders and supporting documents must be returned by 31 March.

4. Your hotel booking has been confirmed.

5. As requested, the sum of $75,000 has been credited to your account.

6. The full conference programme has not yet been printed.
Задание 5. Употребите правильную форму глагола в пассивном залоге.

  1. Chinese (speak) in Singapore.

  2. The Taj Mahal (build) around 1640.

  3. The new hospital (open) next year.

  4. She (interview) now.

  5. I realised I (follow).

  6. (you invite) to Andy’s party?

  7. He found that all his money (steal).

  8. These computers (make) in Korea.

  9. Passengers (ask) not to speak to the driver.

10. Sorry about the noise - the road (mend).

11. The village church (burn down) last year.

12. A Roman pavement (just find) under Oxford Street.
Задание 6. Составьте предложения по образцу. Переведите письменно предложения на русский язык.

Образец:

If you are computer literate you can use different types of software.

If you

you can

1 are computer literate

a) work well on your own.

2 are trilingual

b) use different types of software.

3 are good at mental arithmetic

c) solve problems rationally.

4 are autonomous

d) be a good leader.

5 have a creative personality

e) calculate quickly in your head.

6 have a logical mind

f) speak three languages.

7 are decisive and people accept your authority

g) bring new ideas to the project


Задание 7. Переведите письменно предложения на русский язык .

1. Can I leave the door open for a while?

2. He could ski very well when he was young.

3. They can’t be strangers. They must know each other.

4. Could I borrow your pen, please?

5. Your salary is very low. You should look for another job.

6. Jack always has difficulty getting up. He shouldn’t go to bed so late.

7. I’m feeling sick. I shouldn’t have eaten so much.

8. ‘May I come in?’ ‘Yes, please do.’

9. This must be our stop.

10. This can’t be our stop.

11. You mustn’t throw litter in the park.

12. You should have told me.
Задание 8. Выучите следующие слова и выражения к зачету по теме «Overview: Economy, Culture, Business».

1. владелец - owner

2. отвечать (за) - to be responsible (for)

3. нести убытки - to lose

4. покрывать, обеспечивать денежным покрытием - to cover

5. оплачивать счета - to pay the bills

6. движимое имущество - personal assets

7. зависеть от - to depend on

8. занимать, брать в долг – to borrow

9. предприятие – venture, enterprise

10. совладелец - co-owner

11. предприниматель - entrepreneur

12. превзойти (других) - to excel

13. освобождать от налогов - to exempt from taxes

14. облагать налогом - to impose taxes

15. доля, часть - share

16. регулировать, регламентировать - to regulate

17. подписывать - to sign

18. юридическое соглашение - legal agreement

19. инвестировать деньги – to invest money

20. обязывать, связывать обязательством - to bind

21. вернуть долг - to pay the debt

22. акционер - shareholder

23. определять стратегию - to set the policies

24. одобрение, утверждение - approval

25. основывать, открывать (дело, предприятие ) - to set up

26. некоммерческий - nonprofit

27. благотворительность - charity

28. общество с ограниченной ответственностью - limited liability company
Задание 9. Подготовьте устное высказывание по теме “ Economy of the UK ”. Будьте готовы к активной беседе с преподавателем по данной теме.

^ КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА № 3
Для выполнения контрольной работы № 3, необходимо усвоить следующий грамматический материал:

1. Сложные предложения. Согласование времен.

2. Косвенная речь.

3. Условные предложения.
Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите письменно текст на русский язык.

Text 1. MONEY

Money is indispensable in a society in which commodity exchange takes place. In commodity exchange money plays the role of a universal equivalent, that of commodity ex­pressing the value of all the other commodities.

Gold is the generally accepted money commodity. Because of its natural properties gold is the most convenient substance to carry out the social function of money. It can be easily broken into pieces and melted and «recombined» without any loss of value. It can also be kept safely as it does not become oxidized. In addition it has relatively small volume for its weight while denoting a considerable value.

Money performs a number of functions. First of all, it serves as a measure of value; that is, it is used to measure the value of all other commodities. Each commodity is sold for a certain sum of money, which expresses its value. The value of a commodity in terms of money is called its price.

Money is an ideal unit for expressing the value of all other commodities. What this means is that to measure the value of commodities it is not necessary to have cash. As acts of sale and purchase (i.e. the exchange of commodities for money) are repeated many times, the seller and buyer mentally equate the commodity to a certain amount of money (or gold) corre­sponding to its value.

When commodities are exchanged with the aid of money, the latter also serves as a means of circulation. ^ To perform this function money has to be real, not ideal. What is important is that anyone receiving these symbols of value must be assured that they will be accepted from him too, when he pays for other commodities. That is why states declare paper money to be legal tender.

Money also serves as a means of accumulation or a way of hoarding treasures. This function stems from the fact that money can buy any commodity. Therefore, money is a universal embodiment of wealth and a means of accumulating it. Taken out of circulation, however, money becomes treasure only if it is gold, or money converted into articles of gold, silver and other precious metals or stones.
Задание 1.1. Дайте письменно эквиваленты выделенным в тексте словам.
Задание 2. Прочитайте и переведите устно текст на русский язык.

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